One hundred two passengers departed England. One died en route and one was born, thus 102 passengers arrived in America. Most traveled with families. Some had left behind family members who were to sail on later voyages. After arriving in harsh winter weather, one-half of the passengers died during a "general sickness" of colds, coughs and fevers. The graphics depict the survivors and those who died.
John Alden was about 22 years old, single, and a cooper, or maker and repairer of wooden barrels and casks. The investors hired him in London for the voyage with the hope that he would stay with the colonists rather than return with the ship. He did stay in Plymouth, and in 1623 he married passenger Priscilla Mullins. He and Priscilla had ten children.
Alden became prominent in colony government, serving many years as assistant governor. He was instrumental in setting land grant boundaries. He also served on committees to settle disputes, was a Council of War member, and was a founder of Duxbury, Massachusetts.
In 1634, he was seized and jailed in Boston following a fatal skirmish at Plymouth's Kennebec trading post, although he had no part in the incident. Myles Standish traveled to Boston and secured his release.
Alden was elected assistant governor up until the last year of his life. He died in 1687 in Duxbury at about age 89. Priscilla preceded him in death.
The Allertons traveled from Leiden, Holland. Isaac was a merchant tailor, about 34 years old, and Mary was pregnant with their fifth child. They had buried an infant son in Leiden a year before the voyage.
After arriving at Plymouth Harbor, Mary gave birth on the ship to a stillborn baby boy. Two months later, Mary died in the general sickness, leaving Isaac widowed with their three young children. Five years later, Isaac married Fear Brewster, the daughter of passengers William and Mary Brewster. Their marriage produced two children and lasted eight years until Fear's death by fever in 1634. Isaac married a third wife, Joanna Swinnerton, by 1644.
Isaac was a leader in Plymouth. Chosen as assistant governor, he made trips to England to represent the colony in negotiations with the investors. By 1631, he was discharged as agent for exceeding his authority and making deals that advanced his own profits over those of the colony. He continued his own trading ventures, moving from Plymouth to Marblehead, then New Amsterdam and New Haven, where he prospered in wealth and influence. He was about 72 years old when he died in New Haven in 1658/9.
Bartholomew Allerton was about 8 years old on the voyage, based on his parents' marriage date and his order of birth. He returned to England sometime after 1627, where he married twice. After the death of his first wife, Margaret, he married Sarah Fairfax and had at least four children. Bartholomew died in England at about age 46.
Remember Allerton was about 6 years old on the voyage. By age 21, she married Moses Maverick. She and Moses lived in Salem and had seven children. Remember died sometime between 1652-1656, when her youngest child was less than 4 years old.
ISAAC & MARY ALLERTON, Bartholomew, Remember, & Mary; and servant John Hooke
Mary Allerton was about 4 years old on the voyage. At about age 20, she married Thomas Cushman. They had eight children and were married 55 years, until Thomas' death in 1691. Mary was the last surviving Mayflower passenger when she died in 1699 at about age 83.
John Hooke was about 13 years old on the voyage. He had been apprenticed to Allerton in Leiden at age 12. His parents contracted him for twelve years to learn the trade of tailor, learn to read and write, and to be raised in the faith. He died in the first infection.
John Allerton was a hired seaman, probably related to Isaac Allerton. He was to return to Leiden and help with the emigration of those left behind. He did not sign the Compact, perhaps because he was under age 21 or because he did not intend to stay. He died before the ship returned.
JOHN & ELINOR BILLINGTON, John Jr. and Francis
The Billington family traveled from London. John Sr. was a trailblazer, of sorts. He committed the first crime in Plymouth by scorning the military commands of Captain Standish. He committed the first murder in Plymouth by shooting a mortal enemy. And he received the first death sentence in Plymouth, dying in 1630 by hanging.
Six years after her husband's execution, Elinor was found guilty of slander and was sentenced to sit in the stocks and be whipped. Again, the punishment was the first of its kind for a woman in Plymouth. In 1638, she remarried and lived at least five more years. She died sometime between 1643-1650.
JOHN BILLINGTON JR.
John Jr. was about age 16 on the voyage. While aboard the Mayflower, one of the Billington boys almost blew up the ship when he discharged his father's gun near a barrel of gun powder. Later in spring, John Jr. got lost in the woods for five days. He survived by eating berries until the formerly hostile Nausets found him. When the colonists arrived heavily armed to retrieve him, he was not only well, but wearing native beads. He died young in his 20s, probably between 1627-1630.
Francis Billington was about age 14 on the voyage. He later worked for passenger Francis Eaton as a carpenter assistant. After Eaton died, Francis married Eaton's widow, Christian Penn Eaton. He instantly gained four children, and then he and Christian had nine children together. The family suffered great hardship and poverty throughout their lives, including having children removed from their home and losing their house to fire. Francis and Christian both died in 1684 in Middleboro. Francis was about 78 years old.
William and Dorothy Bradford traveled alone from Leiden, leaving behind their son John, about 4 years old, to arrive later. William, 30, was a silk worker in Leiden. He and Dorothy, 22, had been married for six years.
Bradford was orphaned as a boy and raised by various relatives. Sickly and confined indoors, he took to reading his Bible. He soon began attending Separatist meetings where Elder William Brewster became a father figure to him. At age 18, Bradford emigrated with the congregation to Holland. He was taken in by the Brewsters until age 21, when he claimed his family inheritance.
When the group began planning their voyage to America, Bradford was one of the organizers, documenting their records, negotiations, and correspondence. He also kept a personal journal, later titled Of Plymouth Plantation, which provides much of Plymouth's first-hand history.
Soon after the Mayflower anchored at Cape Cod, Dorothy tragically fell overboard and drowned. Three years later, William married widow Alice Southworth, who arrived with the Anne and Little James. The couple were joined by Alice's two children and Bradford's son, John. Together they had three more children.
After Governor John Carver died in 1621, Bradford was elected to succeed him. Bradford was a well-respected leader, governing Plymouth for the next 36 years, except for five years in which he chose to be assistant governor. He was described as a person of great gravity, prudence, wisdom, and gentleness. He died in 1657 at age 67, survived by wife Alice, who died in 1670.
WILLIAM & DOROTHY BRADFORD
WILLIAM & MARY BREWSTER, Love and Wrestling; and wards Richard & Mary More
William and Mary Brewster traveled from Leiden with young sons Love and Wrestling, and young wards Richard and Mary More. Left behind in Leiden were three older children. The Brewsters had also buried an infant in Leiden in 1609.
Brewster, 53, had attended Cambridge University and is the only passenger known to have attended college. In England, he served as assistant to Queen Elizabeth's Secretary of State and later as Scrooby postmaster. In Leiden, he served as church elder and supported his family as a printer and university English teacher. When pastor John Robinson stayed in Leiden, Brewster became the religious leader of the Mayflower congregation.
Brewster was one of the few who did not get sick during the common infection. Son Jonathan arrived in 1621 on the Fortune, and daughters Fear and Patience arrived in 1623 with the Anne and Little James. Wife Mary died In 1627, and Brewster never remarried. He was much loved and highly respected among the colonists. William Bradford described him as wise, discreet, well spoken, cheerful, humble, and compassionate. Brewster died in Plymouth in 1644 at about age 77.
Love Brewster was about 9 years old on the voyage. At about age 23, he married Sarah Collier. The following year, he became a freeman. His occupation was yeoman, or farmer. He and Sarah settled in Duxbury and had four children. He served the colony in setting forth highways, as juror, and as a volunteer to bear arms in the militia. He died in Duxbury at about age 39. Sarah survived him by about 40 years, dying in 1691.
Wrestling Brewster was about 6 years old on the voyage. At age 13, he was listed in the 1627 cattle division. He died sometime after, as there are no colony records of his coming of age, and he was not alive in 1644 when his father died.
RICHARD & MARY MORE
Richard More, 5, and his sister, Mary More, 4, were two of four siblings placed in the care of families sailing on the Mayflower. Ellen, Jasper, Richard and Mary had been born from an extramarital affair of their mother. At age 25, Katherine More had wed her 17-year old cousin, Samuel More, in a marriage arranged to protect her family's property and wealth. Her heart, however, belonged to a man named Jacob Blakeway.
In 1616, four days after the birth of their fourth child, Samuel avowed that "most of the children" resembled this
Blakeway, and he accused Katherine of adultery. Long, bitter legal proceedings ensued. Samuel disinherited the children and, as their legal father, took them from Katherine and placed them with a tenant family.
In 1620, as soon as their divorce was final, Samuel delivered the children to London, unbeknownst to Katherine, for transport to America. He paid a double share for each and was assured they would be raised by "honest and religious" people and given sufficient necessities as full shareholders. Richard was the only sibling to survive the first winter.
At about age 22, Richard married Christian Hunt, with whom he had seven children. They settled in Salem, and Richard made his living as a fisherman and sailor, achieving the title of Captain. In 1645, he began a secret life of bigamy when he, "Richard More, of Salem in New England, mariner," wed in England to Elizabeth Woolnough, with whom he already had a daughter.
In 1674, he began operating a tavern in Salem. After forty years of marriage, his first wife, Christian, died in 1676. Two years later, Richard married widow Jane Crumton. Their marriage lasted eight years until Jane's death in 1686. Richard died in Salem sometime between 1693/4-1696. The fate of his wife in England is unknown.
Little is known about Richard Britteridge. He signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. He was the first to die after the ship reached Plymouth Harbor.
Peter Brown(e) was about 25 years old, if the son of William Brown of Surrey, as believed. During the first winter, Brown got lost in the woods with John Goodman when their two dogs began chasing a deer. They wandered the whole day in freezing rain, snow, and bitter cold. A search party went out but was unable to find them.
When night fell, Brown and Goodman attempted to sleep on the ground under a tree. When they began hearing roaring animal sounds, however, they quickly climbed the tree and stayed there until daybreak. As soon as it was light, they walked toward a tall hill and were able to orient themselves. They arrived at the settlement that night, faint from the cold, lack of food and sleep, and exertion.
By 1626, Peter married widow Martha Ford, who had arrived in 1621 on the Fortune. Martha had young children from her previous marriage, and she and Peter had two daughters together. She died by 1630, and Peter married Mary [last name unknown], with whom he had two more children. Peter died at about age 38 in the smallpox epidemic of 1633.
WILLIAM BUTTEN - See Samuel Fuller
ROBERT CARTER - See Mullins
JOHN & KATHERINE CARVER; wards Desire Minter & Jasper More; manservants John Howland and Roger Wilder; unnamed maid servant [Dorothy]; and boy servant William Latham
Although John and Katherine had no children of their own, theirs was the largest group on the ship. Carver, a deacon of the Leiden church, had been sent to London to negotiate with the investors, organize the voyage, and purchase provisions for the Leiden group. Immediately following the Compact signing, he was elected governor of the colony.
As governor, Carver negotiated the treaty with Massasoit, leader of the neighboring Wampanoag natives. During the first spring, he collapsed from heat stroke while planting in the fields and died a few days later. Katherine, "being a weak woman, died within five or six weeks after him."
Desire Minter was either a ward or a servant of the Carvers. Two years before the voyage, John Carver had witnessed the remarriage of Desire's widowed mother in Leiden. By 1623, Desire was no longer living in Plymouth, as she was not mentioned in the 1623 land division Bradford writes that Desire returned to England, where she "proved not very well," and died.
Jasper More was a 7-year-old boy put into the care of the Carvers. He also had a brother and two sisters on board under the care of other families [See Brewster for More family history]. Jasper died aboard ship soon after arrival while the ship was anchored at Cape Cod.
Servant John Howland is estimated to have been about 21 years old. During the voyage, he got swept overboard in a storm and nearly drowned, but miraculously grabbed onto a rope in the water and held on long enough to be rescued with a boat hook.
After the deaths of Gov. and Mrs. Carver, Howland became head of their household and may have inherited their estate. By the 1627 cattle division, he had married passenger Elizabeth Tilley and started a family. He and Elizabeth were married for about 48 years and had ten children.
Howland was very active in government and consistently elected as assistant governor. Over the years, he served on numerous committees and inquests. He also served as deputy, juror, highway surveyer, and tax rater.
In 1634, while Howland was overseeing Plymouth's Kennebec River trading post, a Piscataqua Colony man named Hocking tried to intercept their trading supplies. When Hocking refused Howland's repeated orders to return downriver, Howland instructed his men to cut the cables on Hocking's boat. As they were cutting, Hocking seized his gun and aimed at the men. Howland called out, "Take me for your mark! They are only doing what I commanded!" Without giving Howland a look, Hocking shot one of the Plymouth men point blank in the head. In return, Hocking was immediately shot and killed. The shooter's identity is not recorded.
When Howland died in Plymouth "in his eightieth yeare," he was described as a good old disciple and a plain-hearted Christian. Elizabeth died about 14 years later. Their large family has produced a great number of Mayflower descendants.
The Carvers' unnamed maid servant is determined to be the same Dorothy who married passenger Francis Eaton after his wife died during the first winter. Dorothy lived only a few short years after marrying and had no children.
Servant William Latham was about 11 years old on the voyage. In the 1627 cattle division, he was included in the Bradford household. By 1633, he was a freeman. He made his living as a planter.
He is believed to be the same William Latham who moved to Marshfield, where, in 1644, his much younger wife confessed to being "easily drawn away by lewd persons" and was executed for adultery. Later that year, William's house was destroyed by fire, and he returned to England. In 1647, he joined an expedition to settle in the Bahamas. He and others died of starvation there after losing their supplies in a shipwreck.
Servant Roger Wilder did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died in the common infection.
James Chilton and his wife, whose name is not recorded, traveled from Leiden with their youngest daughter Mary, 13. James was about 64 years old, making him the oldest known passenger. Chilton and his wife both died in the first infection, he aboard the ship in Cape Cod Harbor.
Servant Roger Wilder did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died in the common infection.
JAMES & MRS CHILTON and Mary
Thirteen-year old Mary Chilton was orphaned when both parents died after arrival. In her late teens, Mary married John Winslow, who was the brother of passengers Edward and Gilbert. John had arrived in 1621 on the Fortune and was ten years older than Mary.
Mary and John had ten children, and after the birth of their youngest, they moved to Boston. When John died at age 77, he was one of the wealthiest merchants in Boston. Mary died sometime between 1676-1679.
Little is known about Richard Clarke. He signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. He died soon after arrival during the general sickness.
FRANCIS COOKE and John
Francis Cooke, a woolcomber estimated to be in his late 30s, traveled from Leiden with his son John, 13. He left behind his wife, Hester, and three children. He and Hester had also buried an infant in Leiden.
In 1623, Cook's remaining family arrived with the Anne and Little James, and by 1627, another child was born. Cooke served in the "laying out of highways," as a land surveyor, and as juror on a number of court cases. He died in Plymouth in 1663 at an "age above 80."
Son John Cooke was 13 at the time of the voyage. At age 27, John married Sarah Warren, daughter of passenger Richard Warren, and they had five daughters. John was a planter and was active in government. He served in Plymouth as treasurer and deputy, and later in Dartmouth as deputy, constable, and selectman. John died in Dartmouth in 1695 at age 88, one of the last surviving male passengers.
HUMILITY COOPER - See Edward Tilley
John Crackston(e) is estimated to have been in his late 40s, if married to Katherine Bates, as believed. He traveled from Leiden with his son, John Jr. He also had a daughter who married in Leiden two years before the voyage. John Sr. died in the first mortality.
John Crackston(e) Jr. did not sign the Compact, so was likely under age 21. In the 1627 cattle division, he was included with the Isaac Allerton household. Soon after 1627, he got lost in the woods, got frostbite on his feet, contracted a fever, and died.
JOHN CRACKSTON SR. and John Jr.
JOHN CRACKSTON JR.
DOROTHY [Last Name Unknown] - See Carver
EDWARD DOTY - See Hopkins
FRANCIS & SARAH EATON and Samuel
Francis and Sarah Eaton traveled from London with their infant son, Samuel. Francis was a 24-year-old carpenter. He and the baby survived the winter, but Sarah died in the general sickness.
Francis then married Dorothy, determined to be the passenger maid servant of John Carver. Dorothy died within a couple of years. Eaton then married third wife, Christian Penn, a passenger with the Anne and Little James. This marriage produced three more children. Eaton died at about age 37 in the smallpox epidemic of 1633.
Infant son Samuel Eaton lost his mother during the general sickness. At age 13, he lost his father to smallpox. At 16, Samuel was apprenticed to John Cooke Jr. for seven years, after which he would receive "three sute of apparel," twelve bushels of Indian corn, and a heifer. His occupation was laborer.
By age 26, Samuel had married wife Elizabeth and settled in Duxbury, where they had at least two children. In 1651, Samuel appeared in court for "mixed daunsing" with Goodwife Halle. The next year, he was sentenced to the stocks for pilfering and stealing. Elizabeth died sometime between 1656-1661.
At age 41, Samuel married his stepmother's daughter, 23-year-old Martha Billington. Martha was the daughter of passenger Francis Billington, whom his stepmother married after Samuel's father died. Samuel and Martha had four children and moved from Duxbury to Middleboro. Samuel died there in 1684 at about age 64. Martha remarried and died sometime after 1704.
[FIRST NAME UNKNOWN] ELY
Mr. Ely was a seaman hired to stay a year with the colonists. He did not sign the Compact, perhaps because he was under age 21, or because he did not intend to settle permanently. When his time was up, he returned to England.
Thomas English was a seaman hired as master of the shallop, a smaller boat carried on the ship that was used in shallower waters. English signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. He died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
Moses Fletcher, a blacksmith, traveled from Leiden. He first married in 1589, so his age is estimated to be mid-50s. He had baptised ten children, been widowed, and remarried. He sailed without family, however, and died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
EDWARD & MRS. FULLER and Samuel
Edward Fuller and his wife, whose name is unknown, traveled from Leiden with their son Samuel, who was about 12 years old. Edward was 45 years old, if the son of Robert Fuller, as believed. His brother, Samuel Sr., was also a passenger. Edward and his wife died in the general sickness soon after they came ashore.
After losing both parents, Samuel Fuller was taken in by his uncle, Samuel Sr. The younger Samuel became a freeman at about age 26. The following year, he married Jane Lathrop, with whom he had nine children.
Uncle, nephew, cousin, and son all bore the name Samuel Fuller, which makes differentiating among them in colony records difficult. Samuel and Jane settled first in Scituate, where Samuel was elected constable, and later moved to Barnstable. Jane died sometime before Samuel, who died in 1683 at about age 74.
SAMUEL FULLER and servant William Butten
Samuel Fuller, brother of Edward, traveled from Leiden with his servant, William Butten. Samuel was 40 years old, if the son of Robert Fuller, as believed. Twice widowed, he was married to Bridget Lee, with whom he had a child.
He was bred a butcher, worked in Leiden as a weaver of say (fine cloth used for tablecloths and bedding), and served as Plymouth's surgeon, physician, and church deacon.
Samuel's wife and child arrived with the Anne and Little James in 1623. Two more children were born in Plymouth, and Samuel's orphaned nephew, also named Samuel Fuller, lived with them, as well. Samuel Sr. died in the smallpox epidemic of 1633, having tended to the ill as physician.
William Butten was described as "a youth" so was probably a young teenager. He was the only passenger to die at sea during the voyage. He died three days before the ship first sighted land.
Although Richard Gardinar survived the winter, little is known about him. He signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. In the 1623 land division, he received one acre, indicating he had no family. He was not mentioned in the 1627 cattle division. Bradford later wrote that Gardinar became a seaman and died "in England or at sea."
John Goodman, a linen weaver in Leiden, signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. During the first winter, he got lost in the woods for two days [see Peter Brown]. After the ordeal, his feet were so cold and swollen that his shoes had to be cut off his feet.
Although William Bradford wrote that John Goodman died in the general sickness, Goodman was listed in the 1623 land division. He was not listed in the 1627 cattle division, so he probably died soon after 1623.
WILLIAM HOLBECK - See White
JOHN HOOKE - See Isaac Allerton
STEPHEN & ELIZABETH HOPKINS, Constance, Giles, Damaris & Oceanus; and servants Edward Doty and Edward Leister
Daughter Constance Hopkins was 14 years old at the time of the voyage. By the 1727 cattle division, Constance had wed Nicholas Snow, who arrived in 1623 with the Anne and Little James. They lived in Plymouth, then moved to Eastham, where Nicholas served as deputy, constable and selectman. They had twelve children and were married about 49 years until Nicholas died in 1676. Constance died one year later at age 71.
Son Giles Hopkins was 12 years old at the time of the voyage. At age 31, he married Catherine Wheldon, with whom he had ten children. He was a planter by occupation, and also served as surveyor of highways for Yarmouth and Eastham. Giles died in Eastham at about age 82, sometime between 1688/9-1690.
Daughter Damaris Hopkins was about 2 years old at the time of the voyage. She is believed to have died in Plymouth during childhood, with another Hopkins daughter born soon after and named in her honor. Bradford did not list the Mayflower Damaris as having children, yet Damaris Hopkins, the wife of Jacob Cook, did have a child. Also, the order in which Stephen Hopkins' children are listed in his will indicates that a Damaris was born after arrival in Plymouth.
This was the second voyage to America for Stephen Hopkins, a 39-year-old merchant adventurer searching to make a better life for his family. He had previously sailed on the Sea Venture to Jamestown by way of Bermuda, where his ship wrecked and he was nearly executed for mutiny. After nine months in Bermuda and two years in Jamestown, he returned to England to his family. The wife he had left behind, Mary, had died, and of his three young children, only two were living.
In 1617, Stephen married Elizabeth Fisher. They had a child together, and Elizabeth was pregnant with their second. They traveled from London with Stephen's children Constance, 14, and Giles, 12; their daughter Damaris, about 2; and servants Edward Doty and Edward Leister. While crossing the Atlantic, Elizabeth gave birth to a son whom they named Oceanus.
The Hopkins family miraculously survived the general sickness, with Elizabeth one of only four surviving women. Stephen, first noted as a tanner, was a merchant and planter in Plymouth. He took part in the land explorations, served as assistant governor, served on the council, volunteered for the militia, and was an ambassador to the natives, providing them lodging in his home and making trips to their village.
After opening a tavern, he was occasionally fined for offenses such as allowing men to drink on the Lord's day, permitting men to drink excessively, and for charging excessive rates for beer, wine, "strong waters and nutmeggs." In 1638/9, he was briefly jailed for firing a maidservant who had become pregnant by a convicted murderer. He was released after arranging for someone else to keep her for her remaining indenture.
Stephen died in Plymouth in 1644 at age 63. Elizabeth preceded him in death, and Stephen asked in his will to be buried as near to her as possible.
JOHN HOWLAND - See Carver
JOHN LANGMORE - See Martin
WILLIAM LATHAM - See Carver
EDWARD LEISTER - See Hopkins
Little is known about Edward Margesson. He signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. He died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
CHRISTOPHER & MARY (PROWER) MARTIN and Solomon Prower; and servant John Latham
Christopher and Mary (Prower) Martin traveled from London with Mary's son, Solomon Prower, and servant John Langmore. They had been married for 13 years and had one son together, who was not traveling with them. Solomon was one of five children from Mary's previous marriage.
The task of buying voyage provisions had been given to Separatists John Carver and Robert Cushman; however, to prevent "suspicion or jealousy," they decided that the London group should have their own purchasing agent. Martin, a merchant, was appointed to the position. He then proceeded to treat his Separatist counterparts with scorn and contempt and offend the sailors so much with his "ignorant boldness in meddling" that the sailors threatened to "mischief him." Christopher and Mary both died in the first infection, soon after arrival.
Soloman Prower was a servant to his stepfather. He did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died in the first infection.
Servant John Latham did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died in the first infection.
DESIRE MINTER - See Carver
ELLEN MORE - See Edward Winslow
JASPER MORE - See Carver
MARY MORE - See Brewster
RICHARD MORE - See Brewster
William and Alice Mullins traveled from London with children Priscilla and Joseph, and servant Robert Carter. Mullins was a merchant shoemaker and had brought along dozens of shoes and boots. Little else is known about the family, except that two older children remained in England. William and Alice both died during the first winter.
Daughter Priscilla Mullins was the only survivor in her household. In about 1623, she married passenger John Alden, with whom she had ten children. She died sometime before John, who died in 1687.
Son Joseph Mullins did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died the first winter.
Servant Robert Carter did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died the first winter.
WILLIAM & ALICE MULLINS, Priscilla and Joseph; and servant Robert Carter
Degory Priest, about 41 years old, was a hatmaker in Leiden. He left behind his wife, Sarah, and two daughters, intending for them to sail later. Priest died in the general sickness; however, his family arrived in Plymouth in 1623 with the Anne and Little James. Priest's widow, Sarah, the sister of passenger Isaac Allerton, brought her daughters and her new husband, whom she married in Leiden after Priest died.
SOLOMON PROWER - See Martin
JOHN & ALICE RIGSDALE
Little is known about John and Alice Rigsdale. They traveled without children, John signed the Compact, and they both died in the first sickness.
THOMAS ROGERS and Joseph
Thomas Rogers was a merchant of camlet (mixed woven fabric of silk and wool), estimated to be in his 40s, based upon his wedding date. He traveled with his son Joseph, 17, leaving his wife and three more children behind in Leiden. He died in the first sickness, but his son survived. His other children arrived in Plymouth about ten years later.
Son Joseph Rogers was 17 years old at the time of the voyage and lost his father during the first sickness. In the 1627 cattle division, Joseph was listed with the Bradford household. By 1633, he was a freeman and married. In Duxbury, he served as constable and took part in the laying out of highways. In Eastham, he was appointed military lieutenant and selectman.
Joseph had eight children. The only record of his wife's name, Hannah, is in his will. It is unknown if she was his only wife or the mother of his children. Joseph died in Eastham in 1677/8 just before his 75th birthday.
HENRY SAMPSON - See Tilley
GEORGE SOULE - See Edward Winslow
MYLES & ROSE STANDISH
Captain Myles Standish, a hired military leader estimated to be in his 30s, traveled with his wife Rose. He had become aquainted with the Leiden Separatists as a British soldier serving in the Dutch States Army.
Rose died in the first sickness. Myles, however, was one of the few who remained healthy, able to care for the sick and bury the dead. Three years later, he married Barbara [last name unknown], who arrived with the Anne and Little James. Their marriage lasted 33 years and produced seven children.
As chief military commander, Standish took part in land exploration, supervised the building of the fort, trained the militia, and dealt with neighboring natives and colonies. He was described as "a man of very little stature, yet of a very hot and angry temper." Not one to back down from confrontation, his aggressive and courageous leadership contributed much to the colony's success.
When the colony learned that hostile natives were planning to slaughter English settlers, Standish and eight men were sent to preempt the attack. They killed the lead conspirators, with Standish taking on the biggest and strongest and stabbing him with the native's own knife.
Standish was one of the founders of Duxbury, where he died in 1656. His wife second wife, Barbara, died three years later.
EDWARD THOMPSON - See White
ELIAS STOREY - See Edward Winslow
EDWARD THOMPSON - See White
EDWARD & ANN TILLEY; niece Humility Cooper; and nephew Henry Sampson
Edward and Ann Tilley traveled from Leiden with Ann's niece, Humility Cooper, age 1, and nephew, Henry Sampson, 16. Edward's brother John and family were also on board.
Edward, 32, was a clothmaker in Leiden. He and Ann, 35, had been married for six years and had no children of their own. They both died in the general infection soon after arrival.
Humility Cooper was the daughter of Ann Tilley's brother, Robert Cooper. Being in the care of her aunt and uncle as a baby suggests that she had been orphaned before the voyage, and both of her guardians died soon after the ship's arrival. She was listed with the Brewster household in the 1627 cattle division. Sometime after, she was sent back to London and in 1638 was baptised there as a 19-year-old. She died by age 32 with no record of marriage.
Henry Samson was the teen son of Ann Tilley's sister, Martha (Cooper) Samson/Sampson. Having lost both guardians after arrival, he was listed with the Brewster household in the 1627 cattle division. At age 32, he became a freeman and married Ann Plummer. Their marriage produced nine children.
A planter by occupation, he was active within the colony, often serving as juror and grand juror. In Duxbury, he served as constable and tax collector. Ann preceded her husband in death. Henry died in Duxbury at age 80.
JOHN & JOAN (HURST) TILLEY and Elizabeth
John and Joan Tilley traveled from Leiden with their youngest child, Elizabeth, 13. John was a silk weaver in Leiden. His brother Edward's family was also on board.
John, 49, and Joan, 53, had been married 24 years. They had baptised five children, and Joan also had a daughter from a previous marriage. John and Joan both died soon after arriving in Plymouth.
Thirteen-year old daughter Elizabeth Tilley was orphaned soon after arrival. About four years later, she married passenger John Howland, and they were married for about 48 years. They had ten children, all of whom married and had families, making Elizabeth and John possibly the most prolific of all Mayflower ancestors. John died in 1673, and Elizabeth died in 1687 at age 79. In her will, she charged all of her children to walk in fear of the Lord and in love and peace toward each other.
THOMAS & MRS. TINKER and son
Thomas Tinker and his wife traveled from Leiden with a son. The names of his wife and son were not recorded. Thomas was a wood sawyer and had become a Leiden citizen three years before the voyage. All three died in the first sickness.
William Trevore was a seaman hired to stay a year with the colonists. He did not sign the Compact, perhaps because he did not intend to settle permanently or he was under age 21. When his time was up, he returned to England.
John Turner traveled from Leiden with two sons whose names and ages were not recorded. Ten years prior, he had been granted Leiden citizenship and was noted as a merchant. Turner and his sons died in the first sickness, but a daughter came some years later to settle in Salem.
JOHN TURNER and sons
Richard Warren, a London merchant estimated to be in his late 30s, traveled alone. Three years later, his wife, Elizabeth, and five daughters, ages one to ten, arrived with the Anne and Little James. Two sons were born in Plymouth. Warren died in Plymouth in 1628. All seven of his children married and had large families, making him one of the passengers with the most descendants.
Son Resolved White was about 5 years old at the time of the voyage. At about age 25, he married Judith Vassall, and their marriage produced eight children. Resolved made his living as a planter. In 1643, he volunteered to bear arms and in 1644, took the oath of fidelity. He and Judith were married for 30 years until her death in Marshfield in 1670.
Four years later, Resolved married widow Abigail Lorde in Salem. Their marriage lasted seven years until Abigail's death in 1682. Resolved died sometime after 1684.
William and Susanna White traveled with their young son, Resolved, about age 5, and servants William Holbeck and Edward Thompson. Susanna was pregnant with their second child and gave birth on the Mayflower after arriving at Cape Cod. They named the baby boy Peregrine, which means "traveler."
In February, about three months after Peregrine's birth, White died in the common sickness. In May, Susanna, who was widowed with a 5-year-old and a newborn, married newly widowed passenger Edward Winslow. Theirs was the first marriage in Plymouth. Susanna had five more children with Winslow, to whom she was married at least 35 years. She died sometime after 1654.
WILLIAM & SUSANNA WHITE and Resolved; and servants William Holbeck and Edward Thompson
Servant William Holbeck did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died soon after landing.
Servant Edward Thompson did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He was the first to die aboard the ship at Cape Cod.
ROGER WILDER - See Carver
Thomas Williams was about age 38, if the son of John Williams of Norfolk as believed. Four years before the voyage, he had been a witness at his sister's wedding in Leiden. He traveled alone, signed the Compact, and died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
Servant Elias Story did not sign the Compact so was likely under age 21. He died soon after the ship's arrival.
Servant George Soule signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. In about 1626, he married Mary Buckett, with whom he had nine children. By 1633, George was a freeman. He was granted land at Duxbury in 1637 and became one of the founders of that town.
He was active in the colony, volunteering for the militia and serving on committees, juries, and as a court deputy. George and Mary were married for 50 years until Mary's death. George died in Duxbury within three years, sometime between 1677-1679.
Young ward Ellen More was the oldest of four young siblings sailing on the Mayflower in the care of the Winslow, Brewster, and Hopkins families [see Brewster]. She died in the general sickness, as did her sister and one of her brothers.
Edward and Elizabeth Winslow traveled with ward Ellen More, 8, and servants George Soule and Elias Story. Edward's younger brother, Gilbert, was also on board. Edward, 25, was a printer in Leiden and had been married to Elizabeth for two years. They had no children of their own, but were caring for young Ellen More.
Elizabeth Winslow died in the general sickness. In Plymouth's first wedding, Edward remarried newly widowed Susanna White. Susanna had two children, including an infant born after arrival, and together they had five more children.
Edward served as governor, assistant governor, diplomat to Massasoit and the natives, and colony agent to the London investors. He also wrote pamphlets, letters, and co-wrote a detailed journal, Mourt's Relation, about life in New England. He is the only passenger with an existing portrait painted during his lifetime.
On a 1646 trip to England, he joined Oliver Cromwell's government and spent the next nine years away from Plymouth. In 1655, he died at sea in the West Indies while serving as commander of a military expedition to retake the island of Hispaniola. He was 59 years old.
EDWARD & ELIZABETH WINSLOW; ward Ellen More; and servants George Soule and Elias Storey
Gilbert Winslow, brother of Edward, traveled as a single man. He turned 20 years old during the voyage and was the youngest to sign the Compact. In the 1623 land division, he received one acre, indicating he was still unmarried. He returned to England sometime before the 1627 cattle division. He died there at about age 31.
Son Oceanus Hopkins, born during the voyage, was included in the 1623 land division, but not in the 1627 cattle division. He died before age seven.
Servant Edward Doty signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. During the first year in Plymouth, Doty and Edward Leister, both servants of Stephen Hopkins, committed Plymouth's second crime when they fought with sword and dagger in Plymouth's first duel. After slightly wounding each other, they were sentenced to have their head and feet tied together for a day without food or drink; however, due to their great pains and the request of Hopkins, they were released after an hour.
Doty became a freeman in 1633. Over the years that followed, he made full use of the court system, appearing numerous times as both defendant and plaintiff for complaints such as fraud, slander, breaking the peace, trespass, property damage and assault. He paid his fines as well as his taxes and, along the way, accumulated a good amount of land.
In 1635, he married his second wife, 16-year-old Faith Clark, who had arrived on the 1634 Francis (his first marriage is not recorded). Their marriage produced nine children and lasted for 20 years until Doty died in 1655. Faith remarried about ten years later and moved to Marshfield, where she died in 1675.
Servant Edward Leister signed the Compact so was likely over age 21. He is remembered for fighting in the first duel in Plymouth [see Doty above]. He was listed in the 1623 land division, but left Plymouth before the 1627 cattle division. Bradford later wrote that after Leister became a freeman, he moved to Virginia and died there.