One hundred two passengers departed England. One died en route and one was born, thus 102 passengers arrived in America. Most traveled with family. Some had left behind family members who were to sail on later voyages. Several traveled with indentured servants or apprentices who were contracted to work for a certain number of years. After arriving in harsh winter weather, one-half of the passengers died during a "general sickness" of colds, coughs and fevers. The family groups are depicted below. The survivors and deceased are represented by color.
SIGNED THE COMPACT
JOHN ALDEN*, about 22 years old, was a cooper, or one who makes and repairs wooden barrels, casks, and buckets. This skill was essential for survival because goods such as water, milk, beer, flour, grains, salted meats, and fish required leakproof containers. The investors hired him in London for the voyage hoping he would stay with the colonists rather than return with the ship. He did choose to stay in Plymouth, and in 1623 he married passenger Priscilla Mullins. He and Priscilla had ten children: Elizabeth, John, Joseph, Priscilla, Jonathan, Sarah, Ruth, Mary, Rebecca, and David.
Alden became prominent in colony government, serving many years as assistant governor. He was instrumental in setting land grant boundaries. In addition, he served on committees to settle disputes, was a Council of War member, and was a founder of Duxbury, Massachusetts.
In 1634, he was seized and jailed in Boston following a fatal skirmish at Plymouth's Kennebec trading post, although he had no part in the incident. Myles Standish traveled to Boston and secured his release.
Alden was elected assistant governor up until the last year of his life. Preceded in death by his wife, Priscilla, Alden died in 1687 in Duxbury at about age 89. He was the last surviving signer of the Mayflower Compact.
ISAAC* & MARY (NORRIS) ALLERTON traveled from Leiden, Holland. Isaac, about 34, was a merchant tailor. Mary was about age 30. They traveled with three children: Bartholomew, Remember, and Mary. They had buried an infant son in Leiden a year before the voyage, and Mary was pregnant with their fifth child.
After arriving at Plymouth Harbor, Mary gave birth on the ship to a stillborn baby boy. Two months later, Mary died in the general sickness, leaving Isaac widowed with their three young children. Five years later, Isaac married Fear Brewster, the daughter of William and Mary Brewster. Their marriage produced two children: Sarah and Isaac. Isaac and Fear were married eight years until Fear's death by fever in 1634. Isaac married a third wife, Joanna Swinnerton, by 1644.
Isaac was a leader in Plymouth. Chosen as assistant governor, he traveled to England to represent the colony in negotiations with the investors. By 1631, Plymouth discharged him as an agent for exceeding his authority and making deals that advanced his own profits rather than those of the colony. Nevertheless, he continued his trading ventures, moving from Plymouth to Marblehead, then New Amsterdam and New Haven, and prospered in wealth and influence. He was about 72 years old when he died in New Haven in 1658/9.
BARTHOLOMEW ALLERTON was about eight years old on the voyage, based on his parents' marriage date and birth order. He returned to England sometime after 1627, where he married twice. After the death of his first wife, Margaret, he married Sarah Fairfax. He had at least four children: Dorothy, Isaac, John, and Mary. Bartholomew died in England at about age 46.
REMEMBER ALLERTON was about six years old on the voyage. By age 21, she married Moses Maverick. She and Moses lived in Salem and had seven children: Rebecca, Mary, Abigail, Elizabeth (who died young), Samuel, Elizabeth, and Remember. Remember died sometime between 1652-1656, when her youngest child was less than four years old.
MARY ALLERTON was about four years old on the voyage. At about age 20, she married Thomas Cushman. They had eight children: Thomas, Sarah, Isaac, Elkanah, Feare, Eleazer, Mary, and Lydia. Mary and Thomas's marriage lasted 55 years until Thomas died in 1691. When Mary died in 1699 at about age 83, she was the last surviving Mayflower passenger.
JOHN HOOKE was about 13 years old on the voyage. He had been apprenticed to Isaac Allerton in Leiden at age 12. His parents contracted him for twelve years to learn the tailor's trade, learn to read and write, and to be reared in the faith. John died in the first infection.
Isaac, Mary, Bartholomew, Remember, & Mary Allerton;
& servant John Hooke
JOHN ALLERTON* was a hired seaman, probably related to Isaac Allerton. He was to return to Leiden and help with the emigration of those left behind. John signed the Mayflower Compact. He died before the ship returned.
JOHN* & ELINOR BILLINGTON traveled from London with their two sons, John Jr. and Francis. John Sr. was a trailblazer of sorts. He committed the first crime in Plymouth by scorning the military commands of Captain Standish. He committed the first murder in Plymouth by shooting a mortal enemy. He then received the first death sentence in Plymouth, dying in 1630 by hanging.
Six years after her husband's execution, Elinor was found guilty of slander and sentenced to sit in the stocks and be whipped. Again, the punishment was the first of its kind for a woman in Plymouth. In 1638, Elinor remarried and lived at least five more years. She died sometime between 1643-1650.
JOHN BILLINGTON JR. was about age 16 on the voyage. During the first spring, John Jr. got lost in the woods for five days. He survived by eating berries until the formerly hostile Nauset found him. When the colonists arrived heavily armed to retrieve him, John Jr. was not only well but wearing native beads. He died young, in his 20s, probably between 1627-1630.
FRANCIS BILLINGTON was about age 14 on the voyage. While aboard the Mayflower, he almost blew up the ship when he discharged his father's gun near a barrel of gunpowder. In Plymouth, he worked as a carpenter assistant for Francis Eaton. After Eaton died, Francis married Eaton's widow, Christian Penn Eaton. He instantly gained four children, and he and Christian had nine more children together: Elizabeth, Joseph, Martha, Mary, Isaac, a child whose name is unknown, Rebecca, Dorcas, and Mercy. The family suffered great hardship and poverty throughout their lives, including having children removed from their home and losing their house to fire. Francis and Christian both died in 1684 in Middleboro. Francis was about 78 years old.
John, Elinor, John Jr., & Francis Billington
WILLIAM* & DOROTHY (MAY) BRADFORD traveled from Leiden, leaving behind their son John, about four years old, to arrive later. William, 30, was a silk worker in Leiden. He and Dorothy, 22, had been married six years.
Bradford was orphaned as a boy and raised by various relatives. Sickly and confined indoors, he took to reading his Bible. He soon began attending Separatist meetings, where Elder William Brewster became a father figure to him. At age 18, Bradford emigrated with the congregation to Holland. He was taken in by the Brewsters until age 21 when he claimed his family inheritance.
When the Separatists began planning their voyage to America, Bradford became one of the organizers, documenting their records, negotiations, and correspondence. He also kept a personal journal, later titled Of Plymouth Plantation, which provides much of Plymouth's first-hand history.
Soon after the Mayflower anchored at Cape Cod, Dorothy fell overboard and drowned. Three years later, William married widow Alice Southworth, who arrived with the Anne and Little James. Alice's two children and Bradford's son John joined the couple. William and Alice had three more children: William, Mercy, and Joseph.
After Governor John Carver died in 1621, Bradford was elected to succeed him. Bradford was a well-respected leader, governing Plymouth for the next 36 years, except for five years in which he chose to be assistant governor. He was described as a person of great gravity, prudence, wisdom, and gentleness. He died in 1657 at age 67, survived by his wife, Alice, who died in 1670.
William & Dorothy Bradford
William, Mary, Love & Wrestling Brewster;
wards Richard & Mary More
WILLIAM* & MARY BREWSTER William Brewster, 53, and Mary, about 51, traveled from Leiden with their young sons, Love and Wrestling, and young wards Richard and Mary More. They left three older children behind in Leiden: Jonathan, Patience, and Fear. They had also buried an infant in Leiden in 1609.
William Brewster had attended Cambridge University and is the only passenger known to have attended college. In England, he served as assistant to Queen Elizabeth's Secretary of State. Brewster later served as postmaster in Scrooby. In Leiden, he served as a church elder and supported his family as a printer and university English teacher. When pastor John Robinson stayed in Leiden, Brewster became the religious leader of the Mayflower congregation.
Brewster was one of the few who did not get sick during the common infection. Son Jonathan arrived in 1621 on the Fortune, and daughters Fear and Patience came in 1623 with the Anne and Little James. Wife Mary died In 1627, and Brewster never remarried. He was much loved and highly respected among the colonists. William Bradford described him as wise, discreet, well-spoken, cheerful, humble, and compassionate. Brewster died in Plymouth in 1644 at about age 77.
LOVE BREWSTER was about nine years old on the voyage. At about age 23, he married Sarah Collier. The following year, he became a freeman. His occupation was yeoman or farmer. He and Sarah settled in Duxbury and had four children: Sarah, Nathaniel, William, and Westling. He served the colony by setting forth highways, as a juror, and as a volunteer to bear arms in the militia. He died in Duxbury at about age 39. Sarah survived him by about 40 years, dying in 1691.
WRESTLING BREWSTER was about six years old on the voyage. At age 13, his name appears in the 1627 cattle division list. He died sometime after 1627, as there are no colony records of his coming of age, and he was not alive in 1644 when his father died.
RICHARD MORE, 5, and his sister, MARY MORE, 4, were two of four siblings in the care of families sailing on the Mayflower. Ellen, Jasper, Richard, and Mary had been born from an extramarital affair of their mother. At age 25, Katherine More had wed her 17-year-old cousin, Samuel More, in a marriage arranged to protect her family's property and wealth. Her heart, however, belonged to a man named Jacob Blakeway.
In 1616, four days after the birth of their fourth child, Samuel avowed that "most of the children" resembled this Blakeway, and he accused Katherine of adultery. Long, bitter legal proceedings ensued. Samuel disinherited the children and, as their legal father, took them from Katherine and placed them with a tenant family.
In 1620, as soon as their divorce was final, Samuel delivered the children to London, unbeknownst to Katherine, for transport to America. He paid a double share for each, with the assurance they would be raised by "honest and religious" people and given sufficient necessities as full shareholders. Richard was the only sibling to survive the first winter.
At about age 22, Richard married Christian Hunt, and they had seven children: Samuel, Thomas, Caleb, Joshua, Richard, Susanna, and Christian. They settled in Salem, and Richard made his living as a fisherman and sailor, achieving the title of Captain. In 1645, he began a secret life of bigamy when he, "Richard More, of Salem in New England, mariner," wed in England to Elizabeth Woolnough, with whom he already had a daughter.
In 1674, Richard began operating a tavern in Salem. Two years later, his wife Christian died after forty years of marriage. Richard married a third time to widow Jane Crumton in 1678. This marriage lasted eight years until Jane died in 1686. Richard died in Salem sometime between 1693/4-1696. The fate of his wife in England is unknown.
RICHARD BRITTERIDGE* signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. He was the first to die after the ship reached Plymouth Harbor.
PETER BROWN(E)* was about 25 years old, if the son of William Brown of Surrey, as believed. During the first winter, Brown and John Goodman got lost in the woods when their two dogs began chasing a deer. They wandered the whole day in bitter sleet and snow. A search party sent out to find them was unsuccessful.
As night fell, Brown and Goodman began hearing roaring noises, which they imagined to be a lion. They chose to sleep under a tree that they could climb if the noises drew nearer, but they were too nervous to fall asleep. As soon as it was light, they walked toward a tall hill and were able to orient themselves. They arrived back at the settlement that night, faint from the cold, exertion, and lack of food and sleep.
Peter lived in Plymouth for thirteen years. By 1626, he had married widow Martha Ford, who arrived in 1621 on the Fortune. Martha had young children from her previous marriage, and she and Peter had two daughters: Mary and Priscilla. Martha died by 1630, and Peter married Mary [last name unknown], with whom he had two more children: Rebecca and a child whose name is unknown. Peter died at about age 38 in the smallpox epidemic of 1633.
JOHN* & KATHERINE CARVER had no children of their own, but their group was the largest on the ship. Carver, a deacon of the Leiden church, had been sent to London to negotiate with the investors, organize the voyage, and purchase provisions for the Leiden group. Immediately following the Compact signing, he was elected governor of the colony.
As governor, Carver negotiated the treaty with Massasoit, leader of the neighboring Wampanoag natives. During the first spring, he collapsed from heat stroke while planting in the fields and died a few days later. Katherine, "being a weak woman, died within five or six weeks after him."
DESIRE MINTER was either a ward or a servant of the Carvers. Two years before the voyage, John Carver had witnessed the remarriage of Desire's widowed mother in Leiden. By 1623, Desire was no longer living in Plymouth, as she was not mentioned in the 1623 land division. Bradford writes that Desire returned to England, where she "proved not very well," and died.
JASPER MORE was a 7-year-old boy put into the care of the Carvers. He also had a brother and two sisters on board under the care of other families [See Richard More for their family history]. Jasper died on board soon after arrival while anchored at Cape Cod.
JOHN HOWLAND*, an indentured servant to the Carvers, is estimated to have been about 21 years old. During the voyage, he got swept overboard in a storm and nearly drowned. However, he miraculously grabbed a rope in the water and held on long enough to be rescued with a boat hook.
After the deaths of Governor and Mrs. Carver, Howland became head of their household and may have inherited their estate. By the 1627 cattle division, he had married passenger Elizabeth Tilley and started a family. He and Elizabeth were married for about 48 years and had ten children: Desire, John, Hope, Elizabeth, Lydia, Hannah, Joseph, Jabez, Ruth, and Isaac.
Howland was very active in government and consistently elected as assistant governor. Over the years, he served on numerous committees and inquests. He also served as deputy, juror, highway surveyer, and tax rater.
In 1634, while Howland was overseeing Plymouth's Kennebec River trading post, a Piscataqua Colony man named Hocking tried to intercept their trading supplies. When Hocking refused Howland's repeated orders to return downriver, Howland instructed his men to cut the cables on Hocking's boat. As they were cutting, Hocking seized his gun and aimed at the men. Howland called out, "Take me for your mark! They are only doing what I commanded!" Without giving Howland a look, Hocking shot one of the Plymouth men point blank in the head. In return, Hocking was immediately shot and killed. His shooter's identity is not recorded.
When Howland died in Plymouth "in his eightieth yeare," he was described as a good old disciple and a plain-hearted Christian. Elizabeth died about 14 years later. Their large family has produced a great number of Mayflower descendants.
ROGER WILDER, an indentured servant to the Carvers, did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died in the common infection.
DOROTHY is determined to be the Carvers' unnamed "maid servant," because Francis Eaton married a Dorothy after his wife died the first winter. Dorothy lived only a few short years after marrying and had no children.
WILLIAM LATHAM, the Carvers' indentured boy servant, was about 11 years old on the voyage. After the Carvers died, he joined the Bradford household, with which he was listed In the 1627 cattle division. By 1633, Latham was a freeman. He made his living as a planter.
In 1644, Latham's much younger wife, Mary, confessed to being "easily drawn away by lewd persons" and was executed for adultery. Mary was the first woman hanged in Boston. She and her partner in crime, Richard Brittain, are the only people known to be executed in the United States for adultery.
Later that year, Latham's house burned down, and he returned to England. In 1647, he joined an expedition to settle in the Bahamas. He and others died of starvation there after losing their supplies in a shipwreck.
John & Katherine Carver; wards Desire Minter & Jasper More;
& servants John Howland, Roger Wilder, [Dorothy], & William Latham
James, Mrs,. & Mary Chilton
JAMES* & MRS. CHILTON, whose first name is unknown, traveled from Leiden with their eleventh and youngest child, Mary, 13. Their other children were: Joel (who died young), Isabella, Jane, Mary (who died young), Joel (again, who died young), Elizabeth, James (who died young), Ingle, Christian, James, and Mary. Chilton was about 64 years old, making him the oldest known passenger. He and his wife both died in the first infection, he aboard the ship in Cape Cod Harbor.
MARY CHILTON, 13, was orphaned when both parents died after arrival. In her late teens, Mary married John Winslow, the brother of passengers Edward and Gilbert. John arrived in 1621 on the Fortune and was ten years older than Mary.
Mary and John had ten children: John, Susanna, Mary, Edward, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Isaac, a child who died young, and Benjamin. After the birth of their youngest, they moved to Boston. When John died at age 77, he was one of the wealthiest merchants in Boston. Mary died sometime between 1676-1679 at about the age of 70.
RICHARD CLARKE* signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. He died soon after arrival of the general sickness.
FRANCIS COOKE*, a woolcomber estimated to be in his late 30s, traveled from Leiden with his son John, 13. He left behind his wife, Hester, and children Jane, Elizabeth, Jacob, and Hester. The Cookes had also buried an infant in Leiden.
In 1623, Cook's remaining family arrived with the Anne and Little James. By 1627, another daughter, Mary, was born. Cooke served in the "laying out of highways," as a land surveyor, and as a juror on numerous court cases. He died in Plymouth in 1663 at an "age above 80."
JOHN COOKE was 13 at the time of the voyage. At age 27, John married Sarah Warren, daughter of passenger Richard Warren. He and Sarah had five daughters: Sarah, Elizabeth, Hester, Mary, and Mercy. John was a planter and was active in government. He served in Plymouth as treasurer and deputy and later in Dartmouth as deputy, constable, and selectman. John died in Dartmouth in 1695 at age 88, one of the last surviving male passengers.
Francis and John Cooke
John and John Crackston(e) Jr.
JOHN CRACKSTON(E)* is estimated to have been in his late 40s, if married to Katherine Bates, as believed. He traveled from Leiden with his son, John Jr. He also had a daughter, Anna, who married in Leiden two years before the voyage. John Sr. died in the first mortality.
JOHN CRACKSTON(E) JR. did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. In the 1627 cattle division, he was included with the Isaac Allerton household. Soon after 1627, he got lost in the woods, got frostbite on his feet, then contracted a fever and died.
FRANCIS* & SARAH EATON traveled from London with their infant son, Samuel. Francis was a 24-year-old carpenter. He and the baby survived the winter, but Sarah died in the general sickness.
Francis then married Dorothy, who appears to be the passenger maidservant of John Carver. Dorothy died within a couple of years, and Eaton married a third time to Christian Penn, a passenger with the Anne and Little James. This marriage produced three children: Rachel, Benjamin, and an "idiot" child whose name is unknown. Francis died at about age 37 in the smallpox epidemic of 1633.
SAMUEL EATON, an infant, lost his mother during the general sickness and, at age 13, lost his father to smallpox. At 16, Samuel was apprenticed to John Cooke Jr. for seven years, after which he would receive "three sute of apparel," twelve bushels of Indian corn, and a heifer. His occupation was laborer.
By age 26, Samuel married his wife Elizabeth and settled in Duxbury, where they had at least two children whose names are unknown. In 1651, Samuel appeared in court for "mixed daunsing" with Goodwife Halle. The next year, he was sentenced to the stocks for pilfering and stealing. Elizabeth died sometime between 1656-1661.
At age 41, Samuel married Martha Billington, the 23-year-old daughter of Francis Billington and Christian Penn Eaton (Samuel's stepmother). Samuel and Martha had four children, Sarah, Samuel, Mercy, and Bethiah. The family moved from Duxbury to Middleboro, and Samuel died in Middleboro in 1684 at about age 64. Martha remarried and died sometime after 1704
Francis, Sarah, & Samuel Eaton
ELY [first name unknown] was a seaman hired to stay a year with the colonists. He did not sign the Compact, perhaps because he was under age 21 or did not intend to settle permanently. When his time was up, Ely returned to England.
THOMAS ENGLISH* was a seaman hired as master of the shallop, a smaller boat carried on the ship to be used in shallow waters. English signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. He died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
MOSES FLETCHER*, a blacksmith, traveled from Leiden. His age is estimated to be the mid-50s because he first married in 1589. He and wife Maria (Evans) had ten children: Mary, John, Catherine, Richard, Priscilla, Moses (who died in infancy), Elizabeth, Jane, Moses, and Judith. After Maria died, Fletcher married Sarah Denby. However, he sailed without his family and died soon after arrival in the general sickness. His family remained in Holland
EDWARD* & MRS. FULLER, whose first name is unknown, traveled from Leiden with their son Samuel, who was about 12 years old. An older son, Matthew, remained in Holland and came on a later voyage. Edward was 45 years old, if the son of Robert Fuller, as believed. His brother, Samuel Sr., was also a passenger. Edward and his wife died in the general sickness soon after they came ashore.
SAMUEL FULLER After his parents died, Samuel was taken in by his uncle, Samuel Sr. The younger Samuel became a freeman at about age 26. The following year, he married Jane Lathrop. They had nine children: Hannah, Samuel, Elizabeth, Sarah (who died young), Mary, Thomas, Sarah, John, and a child who died shortly after birth
Uncle, nephew, cousin, and son all bore the name Samuel Fuller, so differentiating among them in colony records is difficult. Samuel and Jane settled first in Scituate, where Samuel was elected constable, and they later moved to Barnstable. Jane died sometime before Samuel. Samuel died at about age 74 in 1683.
Edward, Mrs., & Samuel Fuller
& servant William Butten
SAMUEL FULLER*, brother of Edward, traveled from Leiden with his servant, William Butten. Samuel was 40 years old, if the son of Robert Fuller, as believed. Twice widowed, he was married to Bridget Lee, with whom he had a child.
Samuel was a butcher in England and worked in Leiden as a weaver of say (a fine cloth used for tablecloths and bedding). In Plymouth, he served as a surgeon, physician, and church deacon.
Samuel's wife and child arrived with the Anne and Little James in 1623. Two more children were born in Plymouth: Samuel and Mercy. In addition, Samuel's orphaned nephew, also named Samuel Fuller, lived with them. Samuel Sr. died in the smallpox epidemic of 1633, having tended to the ill as a physician.
WILLIAM BUTTEN was described as "a youth," so he was probably a young teenager. He was the only passenger to die at sea during the voyage. He died three days before the ship first sighted land.
RICHARD GARDINAR* survived the winter, yet little is known about him. He signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. In the 1623 land division, he received one acre, indicating he had no family. He was not mentioned in the 1627 cattle division. Bradford later wrote that Gardinar became a seaman and died "in England or at sea."
JOHN GOODMAN*, a linen weaver in Leiden, signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. During the first winter, he got lost in the woods for two days [see Peter Brown for more info]. After the ordeal, his feet were so cold and swollen that his shoes had to be cut off his feet.
Although William Bradford wrote that John Goodman died in the general sickness, Goodman was listed in the 1623 land division. He probably died soon after 1623 because he was not listed in the 1627 cattle division.
Stephen, Elizabeth, Constance Giles, Damaris, & Oceanus Hopkins;
servants Edward Doty and Edward Leister
STEPHEN* & ELIZABETH HOPKINS traveled from London. This voyage to America was the second for Stephen, a 39-year-old merchant adventurer seeking for a better life for his family. He had previously sailed on the Sea Venture to Jamestown by way of Bermuda, where his ship wrecked, and he and others were nearly executed for mutiny. After nine months in Bermuda and two years in Jamestown, Hopkins returned to England to find that his wife, Mary, and one of his three young children, Elizabeth, had died during his absence. In 1617, Stephen married Elizabeth Fisher.
The Hopkins had the second largest group on the Mayflower. They brought Stephen's children from his first marriage, Constance, 14, and Giles, 12; a daughter, Damaris, about age 2; and servants Edward Doty and Edward Leister. Elizabeth also gave birth while crossing the Atlantic to a son whom they named Oceanus.
The entire Hopkins group miraculously survived the general sickness, with Elizabeth one of only four surviving women. Stephen and Elizabeth had five more children after arrival: Caleb, Deborah, Damaris, Ruth, and Elizabeth.
First noted as a tanner, Stephen worked as a merchant and planter in Plymouth. He helped explore the land, served as assistant governor, served on the council, and volunteered for the militia. He also served as an ambassador to the natives, providing them lodging in his home and making trips to their village.
After opening a tavern, he occasionally incurred fines for offenses such as allowing men to drink on the Lord's day, permitting men to drink excessively, and charging excessive rates for beer, wine, "strong waters and nutmeggs." In 1638/9, he was briefly jailed for firing a maidservant who had become pregnant by a convicted murderer. However, he was released after arranging for someone else to take over her remaining indenture.
Stephen died in Plymouth in 1644 at age 63. Preceded in death by Elizabeth, Stephen requested to be buried as near to her as possible.
CONSTANCE HOPKINS was 14 years old at the time of the voyage. By the 1727 cattle division, she had wed Nicholas Snow, who arrived in 1623 with the Anne and Little James. They lived in Plymouth, then moved to Eastham, where Nicholas served as deputy, constable, and selectman.
They had twelve children: Mark, Mary, Sarah, Joseph, Stephen, John, Elizabeth, Jabez, Ruth, and three others whose names are unknown. Constance and Nicholas were married for about 49 years until Nicholas died in 1676. Constance died one year later at age 71.
GILES HOPKINS was 12 years old at the time of the voyage. At age 31, he married Catherine Wheldon. They had ten children: Mary, Stephen, John, Abigail, Deborah, Caleb, Ruth, Joshua, William, and Elizabeth. Giles was a planter by occupation and served as a surveyor of highways for Yarmouth and Eastham. He died in Eastham at about age 82, sometime between 1688/9-1690.
DAMARIS HOPKINS was about two years old at the time of the voyage. She is believed to have died in Plymouth during childhood, with another Hopkins daughter born soon after and named in her honor.
OCEANUS HOPKINS, born during the voyage, was included in the 1623 land division, but not in the 1627 cattle division. He died before age seven.
EDWARD DOTY*, an indentured servant to the Hopkins, signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. During the first year in Plymouth, Doty and Edward Leister, both servants of Stephen Hopkins, committed Plymouth's second crime when they fought with sword and dagger in Plymouth's first duel. Each was sentenced to having his head and feet tied together for a day without food or drink. However, due to their great pains and the request of Hopkins, they were released after an hour.
Doty became a freeman in 1633. During his lifetime, he appeared numerous times in court as both defendant and plaintiff for complaints such as fraud, slander, breaking the peace, trespass, property damage, and assault. He paid his fines and taxes and accumulated a good amount of land along the way.
Doty's first marriage was not recorded, but in 1635, he married his second wife, 16-year-old Faith Clark, who had arrived on the 1634 Francis. They had nine children: Edward, John, Thomas, Samuel, Desire, Elizabeth, Isaac, Joseph, and Mary. Edward and Faith were married for 20 years, until Edward died in 1655. Faith remarried about ten years later and moved to Marshfield, where she died in 1675.
EDWARD LEISTER*, an indentured servant to the Hopkins, signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. He is remembered for fighting in the first duel in Plymouth [see Edward Doty above]. He was listed in the 1623 land division, but left Plymouth before the 1627 cattle division. Bradford later wrote that after Leister became a freeman, he moved to Virginia and died there.
EDWARD MARGESSON* signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. He died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
Christopher & Mary (Prower) Martin, Soloman Prower;
& servant William Latham
CHRISTOPHER* & MARY (PROWER) MARTIN traveled from London with Mary's son, Solomon Prower, and servant John Langmore. Christopher and Mary had been married for 13 years and had one son together, Nathaniel, who was not sailing with them. Mary also had four other children from her previous marriage to Edward Prower: Edward, John, Mary, and a daughter who died young.
Separatists John Carver and Robert Cushman had been tasked with buying voyage provisions; however, to prevent "suspicion or jealousy," they decided that the London group should have their own purchasing agent. Martin, a merchant, was appointed to the position. He then began to treat his Separatist counterparts with contempt and offend the sailors so much with his "ignorant boldness in meddling and controlling," that the sailors threatened to "mischief him." Christopher and Mary both died in the first infection, soon after arrival.
SOLOMAN PROWER was a servant to his stepfather. He did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died in the first infection.
JOHN LANGMORE, an indentured servant to the Martins, did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died in the first infection.
William, Alice, Priscilla, & Joseph Mullins;
& servant Robert Carter
WILLIAM* & ALICE MULLINS traveled from London with children Priscilla and Joseph and servant Robert Carter. Mullins, a merchant shoemaker, had one of the largest investments in the venture and brought along hundreds of shoes and boots. He left behind two older children, William and Sarah. William and Alice both died during the first winter.
PRISCILLA MULLINS was the only one in her household to survive the first winter. In about 1623, she married John Alden, and they had ten children: Elizabeth, John, Joseph, Priscilla, Jonathan, Sarah, Ruth, Mary, Rebecca, and David. The family settled in Duxbury, and most of the children lived to adulthood, married, and had children. Priscilla died in Duxbury sometime before John, who died in 1687.
JOSEPH MULLINS did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died the first winter.
ROBERT CARTER, an indentured servant to the Mullins, did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died the first winter.
DEGORY PRIEST*, about 41 years old, was a hatmaker in Leiden, married to Sarah Allerton, sister of passenger Isaac Allerton. He left behind Sarah and their two daughters, Mary and Sarah, to sail on a later voyage. Priest died in the general sickness; however, his family did arrive in Plymouth in 1623 with the Anne and Little James. Sarah came with their daughters, her new husband, Godbert Godbertson, whom she married in Leiden after Priest died, and her young son Samuel.
John & Alice Rigsdale
JOHN* & ALICE RIGSDALE traveled without children or servants, and John signed the Compact. Both John and Alice died in the first sickness.
Thomas and Joseph Rogers
THOMAS ROGERS* was a merchant of camlet (a mixed woven fabric of silk and wool) and estimated to be in his 40s, based on his wedding date. He traveled from Leiden with his oldest child Joseph, 17. He left behind his wife, Alice (Cosford), and three other children: John, Elizabeth, and Margaret. Rogers died in the first sickness, but his son survived. His other children arrived in Plymouth about ten years later.
JOSEPH ROGERS, 17, lost his father soon after arrival. He then joined the Bradford household, according to the 1627 cattle division. By 1633, he was a freeman and married. He served as constable in Duxbury and took part in the laying out of highways. In Eastham, he was appointed military lieutenant and selectman.
Joseph had eight children: Sarah, Joseph, Thomas, Elizabeth, John, Mary, James, and Hannah. The only record of his wife's name, Hannah, is in his will. Joseph died in Eastham in 1677/8, just before his 75th birthday.
Myles & Rose Standish
MYLES* & ROSE STANDISH traveled from Holland. Myles, estimated to be in his 30s, was a hired military captain. He became acquainted with the Leiden Separatists as a British soldier serving in the Dutch States Army.
Rose died in the first sickness. Myles, however, was one of the few who remained healthy, able to care for the sick and bury the dead. Three years later, he married Barbara [last name unknown], who arrived with the Anne and Little James. Their marriage lasted 33 years, and they had seven children: Charles (who died young), Alexander, John, Myles, Lora, Josias, and Charles.
As the chief military commander, Standish took part in land exploration, supervised the fort building, trained the militia, and dealt with neighboring natives and colonies. He was described as "a man of very little stature, yet of a very hot and angry temper." Not one to back down from confrontation, his aggressive and courageous leadership contributed much to the colony's success.
When the colony learned that hostile natives were planning to slaughter all English settlers, Standish took eight men to preempt the attack. They killed the lead conspirators, with Standish taking on the strongest and stabbing him with the native's own knife.
Standish was one of the founders of Duxbury, where he died in 1656. His wife, Barbara, died three years later.
Edward & Ann Tilley;
niece Humility Cooper & nephew Henry Samson
EDWARD* & ANN (COOPER) TILLEY traveled from Leiden with their baby niece, Humility Cooper, and teen nephew, Henry Sampson. Edward's brother, John, and his family were also on board. Edward, 32, was a clothmaker in Leiden. He and Ann, 35, had been married for six years and had no children of their own. Both died soon after arrival.
HUMILITY COOPER, age 1, was the daughter of Ann Tilley's brother, Robert Cooper. Being in the care of her aunt and uncle suggests that her mother had died. When her aunt and uncle died, she was taken in by the Brewsters, as she was listed with their household in the 1627 cattle division. Sometime after 1627, she returned to London and, in 1638, was baptized there as a 19-year-old. She died by age 32 with no record of marriage.
HENRY SAMSON, 16, was the son of Ann Tilley's sister, Martha (Cooper) Samson/Sampson. After his aunt and uncle died, Henry was taken in by the Brewsters, as noted in the 1627 cattle division. At age 32, he became a freeman and married Ann Plummer. They had nine children: Elizabeth, Hannah, daughter (name unknown), John, Mary, Dorcas, James, Stephen, and Caleb.
Henry was a planter by occupation. He was active within the colony, often serving as a juror. In Duxbury, he served as constable and tax collector. Ann preceded her husband in death. Henry died in Duxbury at age 80.
John, Joan, & Elizabeth Tilley
JOHN* & JOAN (HURST ROGERS) TILLEY traveled from Leiden with their youngest child Elizabeth, 13. John's brother, Edward, and his family were also on board. A silk weaver in Leiden, John, 49, and Joan, 53, had been married 24 years. They had four other children: Rose (who died young), John, Rose, and Robert. Joan also had a daughter named Joan from her previous marriage to Thomas Rogers. John and Joan both died soon after arriving in Plymouth.
ELIZABETH TILLEY, 13, was orphaned soon after the ship's arrival. About four years later, she married passenger John Howland, and they were married for about 48 years. They had ten children, all of whom married and had families, making Elizabeth and John possibly the most prolific of all Mayflower ancestors. John died in 1673, and Elizabeth died in 1687 at age 79. In her will, she charged her children to walk in fear of the Lord and in love and peace toward each other.
THOMAS TINKER*, HIS WIFE, & SON traveled from Leiden. The names of his wife and son are unknown. Thomas was a wood sawyer and had become a Leiden citizen three years before the voyage. All three died in the first sickness.
Thomas & Mrs.Tinker & Son
WILLIAM TREVORE was a seaman hired to stay a year with the colonists. He did not sign the Compact, perhaps because he did not intend to settle permanently or he was under age 21. When his time was up, he returned to England.
JOHN TURNER* traveled from Leiden with TWO SONS, whose names and ages were not recorded. Ten years prior, he had been granted Leiden citizenship and was noted as a merchant. Turner and his sons died in the first sickness, but his daughter, Elizabeth, came over some years later and settled in Salem.
John Turner & Sons
RICHARD WARREN*, a London merchant likely in his late 30s, traveled alone. He was joined three years later by his wife, Elizabeth, and five daughters, Mary, Ann, Sarah, Elizabeth, and Abigail, who arrived with the Anne and Little James. Richard and Elizabeth subsequently had two sons born in Plymouth: Nathaniel and Joseph. Warren died in Plymouth in 1628. All seven of his children married and had large families, making him one of the passengers with the most descendants.
William, Susanna, & Resolved White;
& servants William Holbeck & Edward Thompson
WILLIAM* & SUSANNA WHITE, of Leiden, traveled with their young son, Resolved, about age 5, and servants William Holbeck and Edward Thompson. Susanna was pregnant with their second child and gave birth on the Mayflower after arriving at Cape Cod. They named the baby boy Peregrine, which means "traveler."
In February, about three months after Peregrine's birth, William White died in the common sickness. In May, Susanna, widowed with a 5-year-old and a newborn, married newly widowed passenger Edward Winslow. Theirs was the first wedding in Plymouth. Susanna and Edward were married for at least 35 years. They had five more children: a child who died young, Edward, John, Josiah, and Elizabeth. Susanna died sometime after 1654.
RESOLVED WHITE was about five years old at the time of the voyage. At about age 25, he married Judith Vassall. Their marriage produced eight children: William, John, Samuel, Resolved, Anna, Elizabeth, Josiah, and Susanna. Resolved made his living as a planter. In 1643, he volunteered to bear arms and, in 1644, took the oath of fidelity. He and Judith were married for 30 years until her death in Marshfield in 1670.
Four years later, Resolved married widow Abigail Lorde in Salem. Their marriage lasted seven years until Abigail's death in 1682. Resolved died sometime after 1684.
PEREGRINE WHITE was born aboard the Mayflower while the ship was anchored at Cape Cod [Provincetown] Harbor. His baby cradle is exhibited at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.
He made his living as a farmer and also served as lieutenant and captain in the militia. At age 27, Peregrine married Sarah Bassett and settled in Marshfield. They had seven children: Daniel (who died young), Jonathan, Peregrine, Sarah, Sylvanus, and Mercy. Peregrine died in 1704 at age 83. Sarah died in 1712.
WILLIAM HOLBECK did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died soon after landing.
EDWARD THOMPSON did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He was the first to die aboard the ship at Cape Cod.
THOMAS WILLIAMS* was about age 38. Four years before the voyage, he had been a witness at his sister's wedding in Leiden. He traveled alone, signed the Compact, and died soon after arrival in the general sickness.
Edward & Elizabeth Winslow; ward Ellen More;
& servants George Soule and Elias Storey
EDWARD* & ELIZABETH WINSLOW, of Leiden, traveled with ward Ellen More, 8, and servants George Soule and Elias Story. Edward's younger brother, Gilbert, was also on board. Edward, 25, was a printer in Leiden and had been married to Elizabeth for two years. They had no children of their own but were caring for young Ellen.
Elizabeth Winslow was the last person to die in the general sickness of the first winter. Two months later, Edward married newly widowed Susanna White in Plymouth's first wedding. Susanna had two young children, including an infant born after arrival. Edward and Susanna subsequently had five more children: a child who died young, Edward, John, Josiah, and Elizabeth.
Edward served as governor, assistant governor, diplomat to Massasoit and the natives, and colony agent to the London investors. He also wrote pamphlets and letters and co-wrote a detailed journal, Mourt's Relation, about life in New England. He is the only passenger with an existing portrait painted during his lifetime.
On a 1646 trip to England, Edward joined Oliver Cromwell's government and spent nine years away from Plymouth. In 1655, he died at sea in the West Indies while serving as commander of a military expedition to retake the island of Hispaniola. He was 59 years old.
ELLEN MORE was the oldest of four young siblings sailing on the Mayflower in the care of the Winslow, Brewster, and Hopkins families [see Richard More for her family history]. She died in the general sickness, as did her sister and one of her brothers.
GEORGE SOULE* signed the Compact, so he was likely over age 21. In about 1626, he married Mary Buckett, with whom he had nine children: Zachariah, John, Nathaniel, George, Susanna, Mary, Elizabeth, Patience, and Benjamin. By 1633, Soule was a freeman. He was granted land at Duxbury in 1637 and became one of the founders of that town.
Soule was active in the colony, volunteering for the militia and serving on committees, juries, and as a court deputy. He and Mary were married for 50 years until Mary's death. Soule died in Duxbury within three years, sometime between 1677-1679.
ELIAS STOREY did not sign the Compact, so he was likely under age 21. He died soon after the ship's arrival.
GILBERT WINSLOW*, brother of Edward, traveled as a single man. He turned 20 years old during the voyage and was the youngest to sign the Compact. In the 1623 land division, he received one acre, indicating he was still unmarried. Gilbert returned to England sometime before the 1627 cattle division. He died there at about age 31.